About department

Field of Scientific Interest

The Department of Molten Systems is engaged in research related to all physical and chemical aspects of molten inorganic salts. These systems can be characterized by the existence of Coulombic interactions at high temperatures. The main subject of the research is the investigation of the physicochemical properties which include phase equilibria, density, electrical conductivity, viscosity, interfacial and surface tension. The ultimate goal is to find out the relationship between the physicochemical behavior of the molten systems and their composition and structure. The research focuses mainly on fluoride systems based on aluminum, magnesium, zirconium, scandium, tantalum, niobium, and systems based on lanthanides. The ambition of the department is to use a wide range of modern techniques, such as high temperature NMR and MAS NMR spectroscopy, high temperature neutron and synchrotron diffraction, etc. An essential part of the research of inorganic melts is their electrochemical characterization using several electrochemical techniques (various types of voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy). The applied research of the department is mainly connected with the optimization of conditions of the electrolytic production of primary aluminum and other electrolytically deposited metals, but the subject of applied research is not only limited to electrometallurgy. An important part of the research is the research of corrosion of construction materials in melts, the investigation of molten systems suitable for energy storage, and the synthesis of interesting compounds from inorganic melts, e.g. ternary fluorides or (oxo) – (fluoro) – aluminates based on perovskites for photonic and electronic applications. The department is involved in several national and international projects in academia as well as in applied research for foreign and domestic industrial partners.


  • Head of department: Ing. František Šimko, PhD.

Selected Publications

ŠIMKO, František** – LENČÉŠ, Zoltán – KIM, Young-Wook – NOSKO, Martin – KONTRÍK, MartinKORENKO, Michal High temperature corrosion resistance of electrically conductive nitrogen doped silicon carbide ceramics in molten fluorides. In Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 2023, vol. 43, p. 3931-3940. (2022: 5.7 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 1.257 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2023.03.001

ŠIMKO, František** – RAKHMATULLIN, Aydar – KING, Graham – ALLIX, Mathieu – BESSADA, Catherine – NETRIOVÁ, ZuzanaKRISHNAN, DhiyaKORENKO, Michal** Cesium Oxo-fluoro-aluminates in the CsF−Al2O3 System: Synthesis and Structural Characterization. In Inorganic Chemistry, 2023, vol. 62, iss. 38, ppj. 15651−15663. (2022: 4.6 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 0.997 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.3c02386

AMBATI, RamuPAVLÍK, ViliamSILLIKOVÁ, VeronikaBOČA, Miroslav Corrosion Behavior of Incoloy (R) 800H, Hastelloy (R) G35 (R) and 316L Stainless Steel in the Molten Eutectic Fluoride Mixture FLiNaK and Its Vapors. In Materials, 2023, vol. 16, no. 7, art. no. 2679-1-2679-14. (2022: 3.4 – IF, Q2 – JCR, 0.563 – SJR, Q2 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072679

MLYNÁRIKOVÁ, JarmilaBOČA, MiroslavKUBÍKOVÁ, Blanka Densities and Volume Properties of the Melts of the Systems (LiF + NaF)eut + SmF3, (LiF + NaF)eut + GdF3, and (LiF + NaF)eut + NdF3. In Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 2023, vol. 68, no. 5, p. 1133-1144. (2022: 2.6 – IF, Q2 – JCR, 0.625 – SJR, Q2 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jced.3c00084

AMBATI, RamuPAVLÍK, ViliamSILLIKOVÁ, VeronikaMATSELKO, OksanaBOČA, Miroslav Corrosion of Hastelloy-N and Hastelloy-G35 from vapors gerated from FLiNaK salt with addition of 5% oxygen in argon atmosphere. In Materials and Corrosion – Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 2023, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 670-682. (2022: 1.8 – IF, Q3 – JCR, 0.416 – SJR, Q2 – SJR). ISSN 0947-5117. https://doi.org/10.1002/maco.202213412

SILLIKOVÁ, Veronika – DULANSKÁ, Silvia – JAKUBČINOVÁ, Jana – BURGANOVÁ, Andrea – KOZLÍKOVÁ, Katarína Fly ash sorbent modified with KMnO4 for the separation of important radionuclides. In Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2023, vol. 332, iss. 10, pp. 4335-4341. (2022: 1.6 – IF, Q2 – JCR, 0.379 – SJR, Q2 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-023-09128-4

KITYK, Anna**PAVLÍK, ViliamHNATKO, Miroslav Exploring deep eutectic solvents for the electrochemical and chemical synthesis of photo and electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution. In International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2023, vol. 48, 100, pp. 39823-39853. (2022: 7.2 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 1.318 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.07.158

KITYK, Anna** – ŠVEC, Peter Jr. – ŠOLTÝS, Ján – PAVLÍK, ViliamHNATKO, Miroslav Deep inside of the mechanism of electrochemical surface etching of α + β Ti6Al4V alloy in room-temperature deep eutectic solvent Ethaline. In Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2023, vol. 375, no. 121316. (2022: 6 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 0.914 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2023.121316

PRNOVÁ, Anna**VALÚCHOVÁ, Jana – PARCHOVIANSKÝ, Milan – ŠVANČÁREK, PeterŠIMKO, František – RAKHMATULLIN, Aydar – PÁLKOVÁ, Helena – HRUŠKA, Branislav – KLEMENT, Róbert – GALUSEK, Dušan Structure, thermal properties and crystallization behavior of binary Y2O3-Al2O3 glasses with high alumina content. In Journal of Materials Research and Technology-JMR&T, 2023, vol. 26, pp. 2333-2351. (2022: 6.4 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 1.05 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.08.067

KITYK, Anna**PAVLÍK, ViliamHNATKO, Miroslav Green electropolishing using choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents: A review. In Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2023, vol. 392, art no. 123519. (2022: 6 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 0.914 – SJR, Q1 – SJR, CCC). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2023.123519

LI, Jinguy – FENG, Sen – SHI, Zhongning – WANG, Xu – BOČA, Miroslav Characterization of europium doped yttrium nano-oxide prepared by plasma electrolysis in nitrate solution under air atmosphere at room temperature. In Ceramics International, 2023, vol. 49, iss. 19, pp. 31295-31301. (2022: 5.2 – IF, Q1 – JCR, 0.918 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2023.07.077

AMBROVÁ, Marta** – KORENKO, Michal – SZATMÁRY, Lórant. Influence of the Sulfur Species on the Current Efficiency and Carbon Consumption in the Aluminum Electrolysis Process. In Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, 2023, vol. 54, 5, pp. 2541-2551. (2022: 3 – IF, Q2 – JCR, 0.804 – SJR, Q1 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11663-023-02855-9

PIROŠ, Milan – VASKOVÁ, Zuzana – MAZÚR, Milan – MONCOĽ, Ján – ŠVOREC, Jozef Hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structures in copper(II) nitrobenzoates with N-methylnicotinamide: synthesis, supramolecular structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis, spectral and DFT study. In Transition Metal Chemistry, 2023, vol.48, p. 281-295. (2022: 1.7 – IF, Q3 – JCR, 0.299 – SJR, Q2 – SJR). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11243-023-00542-x


International and National Projects

RARE – Interaction of fluoride melts of rare earth elements with oxides of critical elements in the context of special applications
(Interakcia fluoridových taveninových systémov prvkov vzácnych zemín s oxidmi kritických prvkov v kontexte špeciálnych aplikácií)
Programme: APVV-19-0270
Project coordinator IIC: doc. Ing. M. Boča, DrSc.
Duration: 07/2020 – 06/2024
Phase changes of metal oxides in fluoride melts
(Fázové premeny oxidov kovov v roztavených fluoridových systémoch)
Programme: VEGA
Project coordinator IIC: doc. Ing. M. Boča, DrSc.
Duration: 01/2020 – 12/2023
Molten fluoride systems for green production of aluminium without CO2 emissions
(Fluoridové taveninové systémy pre zelenú výrobu hliníka bez produkcie CO2)
Programme: VEGA 2/0046/22
Project coordinator IIC: Ing. F. Šimko, PhD.
Duration: 01/2022 – 12/2025
New type of cesium fluoro-, oxo-, and oxo-fluoro-aluminate complexes: stability, dynamics and structural characterization
Programme: 101008500
Project coordinator IIC: Ing. F. Šimko, PhD.
Duration: 07/2022 – 06/2024



Foreign Cooperating Institutions

  • Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity, Russia
  • Ecole Polytechnique IUSTI-CNRS, Marseille, France
  • CEMHTI-CNRS, Orleans, France
  • Nuclear Research Institute, Řez, Czech Republic
  • College of Engineering, Valparaiso University, USA